For a brief introduction to daos and Molochs specifically, you can catch up via the Moloch V2 Primer for Humans on Medium.
But basically, a DAO is a magic internet community that allows members to raise and coordinate funds and resources. A Moloch (in addition to being a Canaanite god) is the simple, open-source DAO framework we use at DAOhaus. Its simplicity is important for 3 reasons: security (less code, less bugs), usability (complex tech but easiest to understand and use), and extensibility (the ability to extend its functionality to meet evolving community needs).
Currently, Moloch is on version 2.0. Version 1.0 of Moloch was built specifically for grant giving communities. Moloch v.2 is a more flexible framework that allows communities to hold multiple tokens, make investments, give grants, trade tokens, and more. To learn more about the changes in Moloch from v.1 to v.2 check out the changelog.